A Research Advisor at the John D. Gerhart Center for Philanthropy and Civic Engagement at the American University of Cairo. The views expressed herein are solely those of the author and do not represent the views of any institution to which she is currently or has previously been affiliated. The author wishes to thank Mr. Saddem El Jebali for his technical research support and coordination and to thank Dr. Zakaria Belkhoja for providing extensive technical advice and comments; any errors are the author's alone. The author is also very grateful for the considerable financial support of the Arab Reform Initiative which made this research possible.
Heba Abou Shnief